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General Terms related to AAISP

21CN
21st Century Network.
ALG
Application Layer Gateway - typically software in a router to try to help with VoIP calls, often needing to be disabled
Bonding
Bonding more than one broadband line.
BT
British Telecom.
BTOR
British Telecom Openreach.
BTW
BT Wholesale.
CDR
Call Detail Records - Call logs.
CIDR
Classless inter-domain routing. The /24 (IPv4) and /32 (IPv6).
Circuit ID
The ID for the line when talking to carriers. i.e. BBEU or FTTC.
CLI
Caller Line Identification (re telephony).
CLI
Command Line Interface.
Copper Pair
ADSL and VDSL lines ‘piggy back’ off of the copper pair. This is the ‘phone line’ - two copper wires twisted together.
CQM
Constant Quality Monitoring - the name given to the monitoring graphs used on the control pages and FireBricks. Customers and staff can view these graphs in near real time and historical graphs. It’s updated every 100 seconds. Sends an LCP echo every second (a bit like a PING).
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Makes sure your computer has the IP address and other network config when you’re online.
DNS
Domain Name System/Server. Translates domain name to an IP address to have an internet location.
Domain
Text/written address of an IP address. DNS translates this to an IP address to be understood by a computer.
Download/Upload
Receiving data over the internet/Sending data to another system over the internet.
DS
Delegation Signer (The record used to identify the DNSSEC signing key of a delegated zone).
EMI
Electro-Magnetic Interference. Disturbance from electronic sources. Can also be from sun, northern lights and thunderstorms.
Ethernet
Cable to connect device directly to the router – gives much quicker and more accurate speeds.
FireBrick
The FireBrick is a router, bonding box and traffic shaper. It can act as a SIP PBX, VPN tunnel endpoint and concentrator. Most commonly it is used as a general purpose network appliance in office environments, but many small ISPs/ITSPs also use them in core network situations.
Gigaset
Model of VOIP handset sold by AAISP.
Hostname
Used in association with domain name. E.g. support.aa.net.uk.
IDN
Internationalised Domain Name.
IP
Internet Protocol.
IPv4
IPv4 is the most widely used version of the Internet Protocol. It defines IP addresses in a 32-bit format, which looks like 123.123.123.123. IPv4 allows 4,294,967,296 addresses to be used (2^32).
IPv6
IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses, which increases the number of possible addresses by an exponential amount. They are typically written in this format: hhhh:hhhh:hhhh:hhhh:hhhh:hhhh:hhhh:hhhh

Each "hhhh" section consists of a four-digit hexadecimal number, which means each digit can be from 0 to 9 and from A to F. IPv6 allows for over 340,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 IP addresses.

ISP
Internet Service Provider.
LAN
Local Area Network.
Latency
The delay in transmitting data/processing data, sending a packet and seeing how long it takes to return. e.g. a PING from terminal.
LCP
Link Control Protocol.
Legacy IP
See IPv4.
LNS
A bridge between carrier and ISP. E.g. BT and AAISP.
Logs/Notes
Where we log information and history in regards to the circuit or service.
Loop Fault
The two wires that makeup the line are in contact with each other and are causing a loop.
MRU
Maximum Receive Unit.
MSO
Major Service Outage - some sort of fault that will be affecting lots of customers - should be on https://aastatus.net.uk.
MTU
Maximum Transmission Unit. The size of packets that can be received. If a computer has a lower MTU than it’s data recipient, it will resend again using smaller packets.
Nameserver
Servers that hold information on a regustered domain. E.g. primary-dns.co.uk (main)/secondary-dns.co.uk (backup).
Open DNS
A company that has DNS for anyone. E.g. Can set up parental advisory blocks for children’s usage.
OR
Openreach.
OSI
Opens systems interconnection model. Explains functions of computing systems communications.
Packet loss
Bits of information split into ‘packets’ to send from one IP address to another, in order to find the fastest route. Packets aren’t formed properly when a link is full, causing packet loss.
PEIN
Prolonged electrical impulse noise. Random bursts. SNR spikes, BIT errors.
Port
All data transmitted over the internet is sent and received using a specific set of commands, also known as a protocol. Each protocol is assigned a specific port number. For example, all website data transferred over HTTP uses port 80. Data sent over HTTPS uses port 443.
PPP
Point to point protocol. Enables communication and data transfer between two points (nodes). PPPoE – way to connect to internet using DSL modem. Uses TCP, UDP or IP to transfer data over internet.
PSTN
Public switched telephone network. Circuit telephone network. Uses underground copper wires. AAISP do not use copper lines as traditional ‘phone line’. FTTP does not use PSTN as it is solely fibre optic cables.
Quota
‘Data allowance’.
REIN
Repetitive Electrical Impulse Noise. Can cause broadband line to perform below it’s expected performance. Can cause frequent loss of ADSL signal from the exchange.
RFI
Radio Frequency Interference. Can be picked up by nearby wireless devices.
RIPE
The Réseaux IP Européens Network - the organisation in Europe who manage IP addresses.
Server
Computer that provides data to other computers. Serves data to LAN and WAN. Different servers run software specific to the purpose of the server.
SFI
Special faults investigation. Engineer visit. If no fault found then £160 fee will be charged. Must make sure all appropriate tests have been ran first.
SHINE
Single High Level Impulse Noise Event. A single brief burst of noise. Will show as a single sharp spike on CQM graphs. Can cause the line to drop enough to cause a re-sync.
SIM
Subscriber Identity Module.
SIP
Session Initiation Protocol.

SIP – Sets up phone call. RTP – Real-Time Transport. These two protocols run VOIP.

SIP2SIM
VOIP over a SIM card.
SNOM
Model of VOIP phone sold by AAISP.
Sync Rate
DSL connection rate. The PHYSICAL speed of the connection between your router and local telephone exchange.
TCP/UDP
Transmission Control Protocol. Determines how to break down packets, sends them and resends when there is errors.
Terminal
Command lines or consoles. Carry out tasks without a graphical user interface.
Throughput
Amount of data going through a single connection per second (speed). Expressed in KB/s, MB/s, GB/s.
TR-069
Protocol for managing network equipment. TR-069 is what configures AAISP’s routers, phones etc.
Traffic
Activity on the network/line.
TTW
TalkTalk Wholesale.
Tx Rate
Tx – Download rate. Rx – Upload rate.
VLAN
Virtual Local Area Network.
VoIP
Voice over Internet Protocol.
WAN
Wide Area Network, an external connection to the rest of the world from your LAN.

DSL Related

ADSL
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line.
BRAS
Broadband Remote Access Server (Takes PPP from EU and passes it to ISP by L2TP).
CPE
Customer Premise Equipment (router or modem).
DSL
Digital Subscriber Line. E.g. ADSL, FTTC/VDSL, Gfast.
DSLAM
Digital Subscriber Line Access Modulator.
DLM
Dynamic Line Management.
FTTC
Fibre to the Cabinet. Fibre optic cables to the cabinet, and then copper to the premises.
FTTP
Fibre to the Premises. Broadband running over fibre optic cables. The data is sent through light lasers. No copper pair is required. Fastest speed.
G-Fast
Addition on the cabinet that gives faster speed. Higher frequencies.
L2TP
A standard system called Layer Two Tunnelling Protocol (L2TP) which allows you (using suitable software or equipment) to connect to us via another Internet access service.
LTS
L2TP tunnel switch - the router on the wholesaler's network (eg TalkTalk) that forwards the LT2TP to the ISP. Also see; L2TP on Juniper's website.
TAM
Test Access Module.
VDSL
Very-high-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line .
VP
Virtual Path - a link between an Exchange and the BRAS.

BT Fault Terms

See also BT's jargon buster at https://www.openreach.co.uk/orpg/home/products/serviceproducts/orderandfaulttracker/faulthandling/faulttrackerjargonbuster.do

AI
Action Item.
BBCR
BroadBand Customer Reporting (BT).
BBEU
WBC EUA Service ID (Circuit ID).
CA
Customer Apparatus.
CDTA
Conscious Decision To Appoint - force booking an Openreach engineer.
CP
Communications Provider.
CRD
Customer Required by Date.
DP
Distribution Point.
ELF
Early Life Failure - A fault soon after an install.
EU
End User.
FaultReportAdvised C
The result after running a PSTN line test. Usually Y or N, but C means test Inconclusive/ Not Completed - Fault Report may be raised if CP believes there is a problem on BT network charges may be incurred if the fault is subsequently shown to be off BT network.
FTR
Fault Threshold Rate - The speed at which the line is considered at fault.
KBD
Knowledge Based Diagnostics.
KCI
Keep Customer Informed. SMS or Email informing customers of any line discrepancies.
MBORC
Matters Beyond Our Reasonable Control. Used by BT to indicate that they're suspending normal fix guarantees as some external event has made it impossible to achieve them (e.g. a fire, storms, terror attack).
MFL
Main Fault Location.
MPF
Metallic Path Facility.
NTE
Network Termination Equipment.
NTE5
Network Termination Equipment, 5th version.
PONR
Point of No Return - e.g. when an engineer is booked and cannot now be cancelled.
PCP
Primary Cross-connect Point.
PEW
Planned Engineering Works.
POH
Point of Handover.
RA
Rate Adaptive.
RWT
Right When Tested.
SIN
Supplier Information Note [BT].
SMPF
Shared Metallic Path Facility.
SP
Service Provider (e.g. AAISP).
SSFP
Service Specific Front Plate.
TPM
Tie Pair Modify - The cable from the MDF (main distribution frame) to the DSLAM port is replaced.
TSO
Technology Service and Operations - a department within BT.
WAC
Work Allocation Controls (team).
WLR
Wholesale Line Rental.

BT Fault Locations

See also BT's jargon buster at https://www.openreach.co.uk/orpg/home/products/serviceproducts/orderandfaulttracker/faulthandling/faulttrackerjargonbuster.do

CA
Fault located at Customer Apparatus.
CE
Fault located at Customer Equipment. Provides further breakdown of a CA fault.
DT
Diagnostic Test required to establish fault.
EX
Fault located in Exchange.
FU
Fault Located at Frames Unit. Provides further breakdown of an EX fault.
LN
Fault Located in Local Network.

Openreach PSTN Fault Types

Terms used to describe a fault type on a PSTN phone line. When reporting a PSTN fault to Openreach one of these terms is used to describe the fault.

BNR
Bell Not Ringing.
BR
Bell Ringing continuous.
CCS
Call Minder Problems.
CDT
Continuous Dial Tone.
CO
Cuts Off.
DRO
Damage to aerial cables.
DRU
Damage outside end user premises.
DRW
Damage at the end users site.
DRA
Damage Report Apparatus.
ESF
Exchange Service Facility.
FNT
Faint Transmission.
MOD
No other equipment, retried.
NDT
No Dial Tone.
NR
Dial tone no answer.
NSY
Noisy.
NT
No Tone.
NU
Number not Obtainable.
OHR
Overhearing.
OWT
One Way Transmission.
PET
Permanently engaged tone.
RTP
Ring Trip.
UTR
Unable to trip ringing.
WNO
Wrong Numbers Obtained.
XL
Crossed lines.

Email Related

IMAP
Internet Message Access Protocol.
POP3
Post Office Protocol, Version 3.
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.


Other

IRC
Internet Relay Chat - an online chat room, AAISP have one, see the contact page. You can talk to staff and customers.
TCH
Telecity Hex - a datacentre in London run by Equinix AKA HEX, LD8, LOH - A&A have racks there.
THN
Telehouse North - a datacentre in London - A&A have racks there.